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Milrinone is the drug of choice if a patient has previously been on β-blocker therapy, due to the fact that Dobutamine is a β-agonist and may not be 100% effective in these patients. An α-1 adrenergic antagonist representative of its class. Doxazosin results in arterial and venous vasodilation ecstasy withdrawal and detox symptoms and timelines without reflex tachycardia. The class has fallen out of favor due to findings of the ALLHAT trial that demonstrated a 25% increase in cardiovascular events if used to treat HTN. The class has a niche however in the treatment of patients who are hypertensive and have BPH.

  1. Interestingly, while the dry cough should not occur mechanistically, patients still report cough while on ARBs.
  2. It is usually given as a “wide open” infusion in emergent bradycardic situations, and then once a response is seen, the dose will be tapered.
  3. A thiazide diuretic and the representative of its class.
  4. They aren’t always pronounced the way they look, and sounding them out doesn’t always work.
  5. Warfarin therapy is monitored via the patients INR.

Research has shown there to be benefit when ARBs are used in combination with ACE-I or as initial therapy. However, the class is usually reserved for patients that fail ACE-I due to the fact that ACE-I are more cost-effective. When used in combination with potassium sparing diuretics or ACE-I hyperkalemia can occur. Interestingly, while the dry cough should not occur mechanistically, patients still report cough while on ARBs. P2Y12 receptor blocker in the class of thienopyridines. Indicated in patients post MI/stent placement.

Pharmacist’s Voice

A direct vasodilator of arteriolar smooth muscle. Indicated in hypertensive urgency, like Hydralazine, and is commonly prescribed to renal failure patients on dialysis. It has a side effect of hypertrichosis (excessive growth of body hair) and in the 1980s began to be marketed as the topical preparation Rogaine®. Unlike Dobutamine, Milrinone provides non-receptor mediated ionotropy. It is indicated in the same instances as Dobutamine, but is cleared both renally and through hepatic mechanisms in approximately 2 hours. It has been shown to be less proarrythmic than Dobutamine, but much more costly.

How to pronounce

It is metabolized renally, and therefore is not subject to as many drug interactions as Atorvastatin. The most potent class of agents indicated for diuresis, however, loops are not the most potent antihypertensive diuretic (see HCTZ). Used mainly for diuresis of fluid overloaded patients suffering from renal disease, CHF and other edematous disease states. Resistance can develop to the diuretic effect. Some efficacy can be recovered if a loop/thiazide combination is employed. However, once the dosages are maxed renal patients will usually require dialysis.

Indicated for HTN, angina and AV node arrythmias (such as SVT). The drugs in this class are negative inotropes and can worsen CHF. However, Diltiazem is preferred over Verapamil and can be cautiously used in HF due to the fact it causes less AV node blockage and less decreased contractility than verapamil. Although non-DHPs are more dangerous to use in HF, they are more effective because they act centrally, rather than just causing peripheral vasodilation like the DHP (such as amlopidine). Constipation is a common side effect, but is less severe than with Verapamil. Irreversibly inhibits breakdown of Arachadonic Acid to Thromboxane A2 (via the enzymes COX-1 and COX-2) thereby inhibiting platelet activation and the formation of prostaglandins.

Like Atorvastatin, it is used to lower LDLc. It is the 3rd most potent statin, lowering LDL by approximently 50%. Like Atorvastatin, it also is metabolized via CYP 3A4 and is subject to the applicable drug interactions.

Michigan Drug Discovery

While learning how to spell a drug is important, this multi-modal approach is extremely effective in activating new pathways to learning drug therapy. It’s time to go beyond basic flashcards and drug cards to learn the most important facts about drug therapy. RxHero uses gamification concepts to motivate you to keep learning with quest campaigns and in-game points that alcoholism: disease or a choice? considered a brain disease help you achieve higher player ranks. A P2Y12 receptor antagonist in the class of Thienopyridines (see Clopidigrel). The drug is less frequently used due to its greater propensity to cause adverse events (blood dyscrasias, especially neutropenia, and GI issues). An HMG CoA reductase inhibitor (“statin”) of moderate potency, believed to lower LDLc by approximately 35%.

Word of the day

Using a multi-modal approach, drug facts are presented in a variety of formats to help you master the material. Books and manufactured drug flashcards are bloated with densely packed information that makes learning and rapid quizzing difficult. The GPIIb/IIIa blockers are the only class of drugs that inhibit platelet aggregation.

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